January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of winter) and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of summer). In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

January starts on the same day of the week as October in common years and April and July in leap years. It ends on the same day of the week as February and October in common years and July in leap years. In common years preceding leap years or leap years preceding common years, it begins on the same day of the week as September and December of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as April and December of the following year. In common years preceding common years, January begins on the same day of the week as April and July of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as July of the following year. January also begins and ends on the same day of the week as May of the previous year.


January, from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry

January (in Latin, Ianuarius) is named after Janus, the god of beginnings and transitions in Roman mythology.[1]

Traditionally, the original Roman calendar consisted of 10 months totaling 304 days, winter being considered a month-less period. Around 713 BC, the semi-mythical successor of Romulus, King Numa Pompilius, is supposed to have added the months of January and February, so that the calendar covered a standard lunar year (354 days). Although March was originally the first month in the old Roman calendar, January became the first month of the calendar year either under Numa or under the Decemvirs about 450 BC (Roman writers differ). In contrast, each specific calendar year was identified by the names of the two consuls, who entered office on May 1[citation needed] or March 15 until 153 BC, from when they entered office on January 1.

Various Christian feast dates were used for the New Year in Europe during the Middle Ages, including March 25 (Feast of the Annunciation) and December 25. However, medieval calendars were still displayed in the Roman fashion with twelve columns from January to December. Beginning in the 16th century, European countries began officially making January 1 the start of the New Year once again—sometimes called Circumcision Style because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, being the seventh day after December 25.

Historical names for January include its original Roman designation, Ianuarius, the Saxon term Wulf-monath (meaning "wolf month") and Charlemagne's designation Wintarmanoth ("winter / cold month"). In Slovene, it is traditionally called prosinec. The name, associated with millet bread and the act of asking for something, was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript.[2]

According to Theodor Mommsen,[3] 1 January became the first day of the year in 600 AUC of the Roman calendar (153 BC), due to disasters in the Lusitanian War. A Lusitanian chief called Punicus invaded the Roman territory, defeated two Roman governors, and killed their troops. The Romans resolved to send a consul to Hispania, and in order to accelerate the dispatch of aid, "they even made the new consuls enter into office two months and a half before the legal time" (March 15).

1892 Ellis Island Begins As Immigration gateway

1962 The Beatles turned down by Decca Records

1959 Alaska became the 49th state of the United States of America

1954 Elvis Presley Records First Demo Record

1920 The Yankees bought Babe Ruth from the Boston Red Sox

1967 In the first Super Bowl The Green Bay packers defeat the Kansas City Chiefs in Los Angeles

1901 Queen Victoria passed away in the Osborne House on the Isle of Wight
1920 New "Dry Bill" (Alcohol Prohibition) being Introduced to Congress

1935 First Canned Beer Sold

1964 The Beatles get their first number one with "I Want To Hold Your Hand" on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.

january birthdays include

elvis prsley

richard m. nixon

Edgar Allen Poe

wolfgang amadeus mozart

isaac newton

benjamin franklin

Mohammad ali

Lewis carroll

joian of src


The Roman month Februarius was named after the Latin term februum, which means "purification", via the purification ritual Februa held on February 15 (full moon) in the old lunar Roman calendar. January and February were the last two months to be added to the Roman calendar, since the Romans originally considered winter a monthless period.

February is the second month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The month has 28 days in common years or 29 in leap years, with the 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have fewer than 31 days (the other four being April, June, September, and November) and the only one to have fewer than 30 days. Seven months (January, March, May, July, August, October, and December) have 31 days, leaving the four previously mentioned months (April, June, September, and November) to have exactly 30 days. This means the other eleven months have at least 30 days.

February starts on the same day of the week as March and November in common years and August in leap years. It ends on the same day of the week as October in all years and January in common years only. In leap years preceding common years or common years preceding leap years, it begins on the same day of the week as May of the following year. In common years preceding leap years, February ends on the same day of the week as April and December of the following year. In leap years preceding common years, it ends on the same day of the week as July of the following year. In common years preceding common years, it begins on the same day of the week as August of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as July of the following year. It also begins on the same day of the week as June of the previous year and ends on the same day of the week as August and November of the previous year. In 2021, February has 28 days.

February is the third and last month of meteorological winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, February is the third and last month of meteorological summer (being the seasonal equivalent of what is August in the Northern Hemisphere).


February, from the Très riches heures du Duc de Berr

The Roman month Februarius was named after the Latin term februum, which means "purification", via the purification ritual Februa held on February 15 (full moon) in the old lunar Roman calendar. January and February were the last two months to be added to the Roman calendar, since the Romans originally considered winter a monthless period. They were added by Numa Pompilius about 713 BC. February remained the last month of the calendar year until the time of the decemvirs (c. 450 BC), when it became the second month. At certain times February was truncated to 23 or 24 days, and a 27-day intercalary month, Intercalaris, was occasionally inserted immediately after February to realign the year with the seasons.

February observances in Ancient Rome included Amburbium (precise date unknown), Sementivae (February 2), Februa (February 13–15), Lupercalia (February 13–15), Parentalia (February 13–22), Quirinalia (February 17), Feralia (February 21), Caristia (February 22), Terminalia (February 23), Regifugium (February 24), and Agonium Martiale (February 27). These days do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

Under the reforms that instituted the Julian calendar, Intercalaris was abolished, leap years occurred regularly every fourth year, and in leap years February gained a 29th day. Thereafter, it remained the second month of the calendar year, meaning the order that months are displayed (January, February, March, ..., December) within a year-at-a-glance calendar. Even during the Middle Ages, when the numbered Anno Domini year began on March 25 or December 25, the second month was February whenever all twelve months were displayed in order. The Gregorian calendar reforms made slight changes to the system for determining which years were leap years, but also contained a 29-day February.

Historical names for February include the Old English terms Solmonath (mud month) and Kale-monath (named for cabbage) as well as Charlemagne's designation Hornung. In Finnish, the month is called helmikuu, meaning "month of the pearl"; when snow melts on tree branches, it forms droplets, and as these freeze again, they are like pearls of ice. In Polish and Ukrainian, respectively, the month is called luty or лютий (lyutiy), meaning the month of ice or hard frost. In Macedonian the month is sechko (сечко), meaning month of cutting (wood). In Czech, it is called únor, meaning month of submerging (of river ice).

In Slovene, February is traditionally called svečan, related to icicles or Candlemas.[2] This name originates from sičan,[3] written as svičan in the New Carniolan Almanac from 1775 and changed to its final form by Franc Metelko in his New Almanac from 1824. The name was also spelled sečan, meaning "the month of cutting down of trees".[2]

In 1848, a proposal was put forward in Kmetijske in rokodelske novice by the Slovene Society of Ljubljana to call this month talnik (related to ice melting), but it did not stick. The idea was proposed by a priest, Blaž Potočnik.[4] Another name of February in Slovene was vesnar, after the mythological character Vesna.[5]

notable events

February 1, 2003 - Sixteen minutes before it was scheduled to land, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart in flight over west Texas, killing all seven crew members. The accident may have resulted from damage caused during liftoff when a piece of insulating foam from the external fuel tank broke off, piercing a hole in the shuttle's left wing that allowed hot gases to penetrate the wing upon re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. This was the second space shuttle lost in flight. In January 1986, Challenger exploded during liftoff.


PICTURED BELOW: DOOMED Columbia CREWMEN Michael Anderson, David Brown, KALPANA Chawla, Laurel Clark,  Rick Husband, William McCool, and Ilan Ramon.

February 4, 1861 - Apache Chief Cochise was arrested in Arizona by the U.S. Army for raiding a ranch. Cochise then escaped and declared war, beginning the period known as the Apache Wars, which lasted 25 years

February 2, 1848 - The war between the U.S. and Mexico ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In exchange for $15 million, the U.S. acquired the areas encompassing parts or all of present day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas. The treaty was ratified on March 10, 1848

February 6, 1788 - Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the new U.S. Constitution, by a vote of 187 to 168.





February 7, 1812- Charles Dickens, novelist

February 12, 1809- Charles Darwin, Author, Darwin's Theory















A FINE MESH creates hand-crafted decorative wreaths for every occasion, event, season and personal interest. For those still proud show their American spirit A FINE MESH offers patriotic wreaths in various styles along with those celebrating the police and fire, first responders and armed services. Special orders welcome.

A FINE MESH is an owner-operated local business with limited delivery options; shipping arranged at prevailing rates. 

Please visit afinemesh.net to browse our most popular creations. Prices start at $40.00.

Thank you for considering A FINE MESH.


BELOW Statue of Roman God of War Mars for whom March was named

BELOW: Depiction on canvas of one of the most infamous events in history - the assassination of Julius Caesar on the steps of the Roman Senate March 15 44bc. Better known as The Ides Of March.

I Martius am! Once first, and now third!
To lead the Year was my appointed place;
A mortal dispossessed me by a word,
And set there Janus with the double face
–Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American poet (1807–82)

March is the third month of the year and is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The name of March comes from Martius, the first month of the earliest Roman calendar.

 In early versions of the ancient Roman calendar, the year began with March or Martius. Because the month coincides with the time of the March equinox and the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere, where the calendar originated, March was considered to be a month of new beginnings.

The months of January and February did not feature in earlier versions of the Roman calendar. They were added to the end of the year around 700 BCE and became the first months of the year around 450 BCE, pushing March to its currently held third position.

It was named after Mars, the Roman god of war. His month Martius was the beginning of the season for warfare, and festivals weree held in his honor.  being the start of spring, was also the start of the New Year. Much of Europe used March as the start of the year. Britain used March 25th as the beginning of the New Year until 1752.


March 1 began the numbered year in Russia until the end of the 15th century. Great Britain and its colonies continued to use March 25 until 1752, when they finally adopted the Gregorian calendar (the fiscal year in the UK continues to begin on 6 April, initially identical to 25 March in the former Julian calendar). Many other cultures and religions still celebrate the beginning of the New Year in March.

March is the first month of spring in the Northern Hemisphere (North America, Europe, Asia and part of Africa) and the first month of fall or autumn in the Southern Hemisphere (South America, part of Africa, and Oceania).

Ancient Roman observances celebrated in March include Agonium Martiale, celebrated on March 1, March 14, and March 17, Matronalia, celebrated on March 1, Junonalia, celebrated on March 7, Equirria, celebrated on March 14, Mamuralia, celebrated on either March 14 or March 15, Hilaria on March 15 and then through March 22–28, Argei, celebrated on March 16–17, Liberalia and Bacchanalia, celebrated March 17, Quinquatria, celebrated March 19–23, and Tubilustrium, celebrated March 23. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

There are two zodiac signs in March. Pisces, which is until March 20, and Aries which is from the 21st.

Notable Events

1 March 1932: The ‘Lindbergh baby’ vanishes

March 1, 1781 - Formal ratification of the Articles of Confederation was announced by Congress.

March 3, 1931  The Star Spangled Banner   becomes   the National Anthem

March 4, 1789 - The Constitution of the United of America goes into effect.

  • 1852 – Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe is published

  • 1854 – The Republican Party of the US is organized in Ripon, Wisconsin

March 7, 1933 - Monopoly board game is invented.l

March 9, 1959 - Mattel debuts Barbie dolls at the International American Toy Fair in New York City. 

March 9, 1964 -  The first Ford Mustang rolls off the assembly line.

March 10, 1876 Alexander Graham  Bell speaks first words to be heard clearly through a telephone: “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you”. (image below)

Birthdays This Month






April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

April is commonly associated with the season of autumn in parts of the Southern Hemisphere, and spring in parts of the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to October in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa.

April was the second month of the earliest Roman calendar,[3] before Ianuarius and Februarius were added by King Numa Pompilius about 700 BC. It became the fourth month of the calendar year (the year when twelve months are displayed in order) during the time of the decemvirs about 450 BC, when it also was given 29 days. The 30th day was added during the reform of the calendar undertaken by Julius Caesar in the mid-40s BC, which produced the Julian calendar.

The Anglo-Saxons called April ēastre-monaþ. The Venerable Bede says in The Reckoning of Time that this month ēastre is the root of the word Easter. He further states that the month was named after a goddess Eostre whose feast was in that month. It is also attested by Einhard in his work, Vita Karoli Magni

The Romans gave this month the Latin name Aprilis[1] but the derivation of this name is uncertain. The traditional etymology is from the verb aperire, "to open", in allusion to its being the season when trees and flowers begin to "open", which is supported by comparison with the modern Greek use of άνοιξη (ánixi) (opening) for spring. Since some of the Roman months were named in honor of divinities, and as April was sacred to the goddess Venus, her Veneralia being held on the first day, it has been suggested that Aprilis was originally her month Aphrilis, from her equivalent Greek goddess name Aphrodite (Aphros), or from the Etruscan name ApruJacob Grimm suggests the name of a hypothetical god or hero, Aper or Aprus.[2]


America’s first astronauts were announced by NASA on April 9, 1959

The first  

Webster Dictionary

was copyrighted by Noah Webster 

April 14, 1828.

The Titanic sank on April 15, 1912

The Revolutionary War in America began on April 19, 1775.

The United States Library of Congress was established April 24, 1800.

Our first President George Washington was inaugurated on April 30, 1789.


April 2, 1805 - Hans Christian Anderson, children's author

April 2, 1914 - Sir Alec Guinness, actor

April 2, 1834 - Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, sculpted the Statue of Liberty

April 3, 1924 - Marlon Brando, actor

April 3, 1924 - Doris Day, American actress, singer

April 3, 1926 - Virgil "Gus" Grissom, astronaut , died in a fire during a simulation aboard Apollo 1

April 3, 1942 - Wayne Newton, singer and actor

April 5, 1900 - Spencer Tracy, actor

April 5, 1908 - Bette Davis, actress

April 5, 1916 - Gregory Peck, actor

April 7, 742 - Charlemagne, King of the Franks

April 7, 1770 - William Wordsworth, poet, philosopher

April 7, 1897 - Walter Winchell, journalist, broadcaster

April 10, 1794 - Commodore Matthew Perry, opened

naval relations with Japan

April 10, 1847 - Joseph Pulitzer, journalist, publisher


April 20, 1889 - Adolf Hitler, Nazi dictator of Germany+

April 21, 1926 - Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of England

April 27, 1521 - Ferdinand Magelan, Portugese explorer

April 27, 1791 - Samuel Morse, invented magnetic telegraph

April 27, 1822 - Ulyddrd S. Grant, 18th U.S. President, Civil War general (1869-1877)

April 27, 1896 - Rogers Hornsby, baseball player

April 29, 1863 - William Randolph Hearst, newspaper editor, publisher

April 29, 1899 - Duke Ellington, jazz musician, bandleader

April 29, 1901 - Emperor Hirohito, emperor of Japan during World War II

Sheesh, if this list was any longer April would need 31 days.

(the preceding is solely the view of Brianetics.  The  National Institute of Standards and Technology,  Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris,   International Bureau of Weights and Measures as well as The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service state they do not support the assertion above nor any scholarship that led to said assertion and call for the immediate expulsion of any favorable peer review source from all professional  organizations, institutes of higher  learning and civic boards a well as the invalidation of howsoever many degrees - earned and honorary - the peer has received in that career.)


 The month of May was named for the Greek goddess Maia. She was the goddess of fertility. The Romans had a similar goddess named Bona Dea. They held the festival for Bona Dea during the month of May. The Romans called the month Maius. The name changed over the years. It was first called May in the 1400s near the end of the Middle Ages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Symbol for Maia, Greek

Goddess Of Spring


May typically marks the start of the summer vacation season in the United States (Memorial Day) and Canada (Victoria Day) that ends on Labor Day, the first Monday of September.

May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the third of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

May (in Latin, Maius) was named for the Greek Goddess Maia, who was identified with the Roman era goddess of fertility, Bona Dea, whose festival was held in May. Conversely, the Roman poet Ovid provides a second etymology, in which he says that the month of May is named for the maiores, Latin for "elders," and that the following month (June) is named for the iuniores, or "young people" (Fasti VI.88).


HISTORY OF JUNE                  Juno ^(above}

June represents the halfway point of the year, being the sixth of the twelve months of both the Gregorian calendar — which we use currently in the West — and also the earlier Julian calendar, named for Julius Caesar, the namesake of July. Where do we get the name for June?

What’s In A Name?

Ovid, author of that bi-millennial best-selling magnum opus “Metamorphoses” — where he takes the stories of the Greek myths and gives them Roman names — suggests two possible etymologies.

  • The first and more likely origin is the Roman goddess Juno, wife of Jupiter, who was referred to as Hera by the Greeks. She is the patroness of marriages, and most marriages happen during June. It was considered good luck to get married during June, though the good weather and school vacation could have something to do with it now.
  • Ovid also suggested that the month was named for Iuniores, Latin for “young people,” in the same way that May is named for “elders” or Maiores. And as we all recall from “Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade,” there was no J in Latin in the 1st century.



Astronomy and June

June contains the longest days of the year, at least in the Northern hemisphere, including the very longest day(light) of the year, the Summer Solstice. This is also called Midsummer Day  — made famous by Shakespeare’s play A Midsummer Night’s Dream — when the “sun stands still” in its trek north in the sky, and reverses its course, and begins heading south.


Why June Weddings

While some believe June is Wedding Month, it was not always so with the ancient Romans. The aforementioned Ovid, to pick a good day for his daughter to marry, consulted the high priestess of Jupiter who said mid-May through mid-June was inauspicious and recommended he postpone until after June 15.


The 1st of June is the beginning of the meteorological summer in the Northern hemisphere. In the pagan calendar, the summer solstice is the time of Litha, similar to the way the Winter Solstice is Yule, an old Norse word for a twelve-day celebration.

June hosts such important holidays in the year, so mark your calendar, as Flag Day (June 14), International Picnic Day (June 18), and the perennial favorite Juneteenth (June 19) all happen during this month.

Trivia: No other month in the same year starts on the same day of the week as June.

So June is more than just Dads and G



June 1, 1971 - Ed Sullivan's final show.

June 2, 1692 - Salem Witch Trials begin.

June 2, 1835 - PT Barnum's circus begins first tour of U.S.

June 2, 1886 - Grover Cleveland is married while in serving as U.S. president.

June 2, 1924 - Congress grants U.S. citizenship to people of American Indian descent

June 5, 1968 - Bobby Kennedy is assassinated


June 6, 1933 - The first drive-in theater opened in Camden, New Jersey.

June 13, 1884 - The first roller coaster ride opens at Coney Island in Brooklyn, NY. It cost 5 cents a ride.

June 14, 1775 - The U. S. Army is formed.

June 20, 1782 - The U.S. Congress approves the Great Seal of the United States and the bald eagle as its symbol.

June 23, 2016 - Brexit: The United Kingdom votes to leave the European Union.

June 24, 1509 - Henry VII is crowned the King of England.

June 24, 1938 - A 450 ton meteor crashed in Chicora, PA. north of Pittsburgh. The only casualty was one cow.... RIP.

june 26, 1498 - The toothbrush is invented in China.

June 29, 1964 - The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is passed after an 83 day filibuster in the U.S. Senate







Bill Petro, your friendly neighborhood historian

If you enjoyed this article, please consider leaving a comment. Subscribe to have future articles delivered to your email.



July is the seventh month of the year (between June and August) in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Before that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.

It is on average the warmest month in most of the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the second month of summer, and the coldest month in much of the Southern Hemisphere, where it is the second month of winter. The second half of the year commences in July. In the Southern Hemisphere, July is the seasonal equivalent of January in the Northern hemisphere.


Ft. McHenry !812 Flag

Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected now shines in the stream: 'Tis the star-spangled banner! Oh long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion, A home and a country should leave us no more! Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave: And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!

Oh! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand Between their loved home and the war's desolation! Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n rescued land Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just, And this be our motto: "In God is our trust." And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave


July 1, 1863 - Beginning of the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War.

July 2, 1776 - The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the following resolution, originally introduced on June 7, by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia: "Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. That it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances. That a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective Colonies for their consideration and approbation."

July 3, 1775 - During the American RevolutionGeorge Washington took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts

July 4, 1776 - The Declaration of Independence was approved by the Continental Congress.

July 4, 1776 - The Declaration of Independence was approved by the Continental Congress.

July 5, 1775- The Continental Congress adopted the Olive Branch Petition expressing hope for a reconciliation with Britain. However, King George III refused even to look at the petition and instead issued a proclamation declaring the colonists to be in a state of open rebellion.

July 8, 1776 - The first public reading of the Declaration of Independence occurred as Colonel John Nixon read it to an assembled crowd in Philadelphia.

July 13, 1787 - Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance establishing formal procedures for transforming territories into states. 

July 20, 1969 - A global audience watched on television as Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon's surface and proclaimed, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" -

July 27, 1953 - The Korean War ended with the signing of an armistice by U.S. and North Korean delegates at Panmunjom, Korea. 

July 31, 1776 - During the American Revolution, Francis Salvador became the first Jew to die in the conflict. He had also been the first Jew elected to office in Colonial America, voted a member of the South Carolina Provincial Congress in January 1775.


The first African American on the U.S. Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) 

 Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) the 30th U.S. President was born in Plymouth, Vermont. He became President on August 3, 1923, after the death of Warren G. Harding. In 1924, Coolidge was elected President but did not run for re-election in 1928.

Promoter and showman P.T. Barnum (1810-1891) was born in Bethel, Connecticut. His American Museum opened in 1842, exhibiting unusual acts such as the Feejee Mermaid, Siamese Twins Chang and Eng, and General Tom Thumb. In 1871, Barnum opened "The Greatest Show on Earth"  later merging with rival J.A. Bailey to form the Barnum and Bailey Circus.

 Revolutionary War Naval Officer John Paul Jones (1747-1792) was born in Kirkbean, Scotland. He is best remembered for responding "I have not yet begun to fight!" to British opponents seeking his surrender during a naval battle.

John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) the 6th U.S. President, and son of the 2nd President, John Adams, was born in Braintree, Massachusetts. After serving just one term as President, he served 17 years as a member of Congress.


Named to honor the first Roman emperor Augustus Caesar (right)

Augustus (63 B.C. - A.D. 14) was grandnephew of Julius Caesar. The Senate conveyed upon him the name Augustus which comes from the Latin word meaning venerable, noble, and majestic.

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days.[1] Its zodiac sign is Leo and was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, with March being the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC (708 AUC), giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Emperor Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.

August's birthstones are the peridotsardonyx, and spinel.

Its birth flower is the gladiolus or poppy, meaning beauty, strength of character, love, marriage and family.

The Western zodiac signs for the month of August are Leo (until August 22) and Virgo (from August 23 onwards)


August 2, 1776 - In Philadelphia, most of the 55 members of the Continental Congress signed the parchment copy of the Declaration of Independence.

August 3, 1492 - Christopher Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, with three ships, Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria. Seeking a westerly route to the Far East, he instead landed on October 12th in the Bahamas, thinking it was an outlying Japanese island.

August 5, 1861 - President Abraham Lincoln signed into law the first Federal income tax, a 3 percent tax on incomes over $800, as an emergency wartime measure during the Civil War. However, the tax was never actually put into effect.

August 5, 1962 - Film star Marilyn Monroe died at age 36 from an overdose of sleeping pills. She made 29 films during her career and came to symbolize Hollywood glamour

August 6, 1965 - The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Act suspended literacy, knowledge and character tests designed to keep African Americans from voting in the South. It also authorized the appointment of Federal voting examiners and barred discriminatory poll taxes. The Act was renewed by Congress in 1975, 1984 and 1991.

August 9, 1974 - Effective at noon, Richard M. Nixon resigned the presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal. Nixon had appeared on television the night before and announced his decision to the American people. Facing possible impeachment by Congress, he became the only U.S. President ever to resign.

August 13, 1961 - The East German government had closed the border between east and west sectors of Berlin with barbed wire to discourage emigration to the West. On this date, the barbed wire was replaced by a 12 foot-high concrete wall eventually extending 103 miles (166 km) around the perimeter of West Berlin. The Berlin Wall included electrified fences, fortifications, and guard posts. Presidents Kennedy and Reagan made notable appearances at the wall accompanied by speeches denouncing Communism. Due to pressures from the Reagan Administration, the wall was opened Nov. 1989 by decree of the East German government and torn down by the end of 1990.

August 14, 1945 - Following the two Atomic Bomb drops, delegates of Emperor Hirohito accepted Allied surrender terms originally issued at Potsdam on July 26, 1945, with the exception that the Emperor's sovereignty would be maintained. Japanese Emperor Hirohito, who had never spoken on radio, then recorded an announcement admitting Japan's surrender, without actually using the word. The formal surrender ceremony occurred later, on September 2, 1945, on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

August 15, 1969 - Woodstock began in a field near Yasgur's Farm at Bethel, New York. The three-day concert featured 24 rock bands and drew a crowd of more than 300,000 young people. The event came to symbolize the counter-culture movement of the 1960's.

August 18, 1920 - The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, granting women the right to vote.

August 24-25, 1814 - During the War of 1812, Washington, D.C., was invaded by British forces that burned the Capitol, the White House and most other public buildings along with a number of private homes. The burning was in retaliation for the earlier American burning of York (Toronto).

August 28, 1963 - The March on Washington occurred as over 250,000 persons attended a Civil Rights rally in Washington, D.C., at which Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. made his now-famous I Have a Dream speech.

August 31, 1997 - Britain's Princess Diana died at age 36 from massive internal injuries suffered in a high-speed car crash, reportedly after being pursued by photographers. The crash occurred shortly after midnight in Paris inside a tunnel along the Seine River at the Pont de l'Alma bridge. Also killed in the crash were Diana's companion, Dodi Fayed, 42, and chauffeur Henri Paul. A fourth person in the car, bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones, was seriously injured.


Napoleon Bonaparte 


Neil Armstrong - First Man To Walk On The Moon 

Lyndon Baines Johnson - 36th President of the United States

August 1, 1779 - Francis Scott Key, author of the national anthem

August 1, 1819 - Herman Melville, novelist

August 2, 1924 - James Baldwin, author, playwright

August 2,  1924 - Carroll O'Connor, actor, "Archie Bunker" on  TV series "All in the Family"

August 2, 1932 - Peter O'Toole, actor

August 3, 1977 - Tom Brady, NFL New England Patriots Quarterback

August 4, 1900 - Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother of England

August 4, 1901 - Louis Armstrong, jazz trumpeter

August 4, 1910 - William Howard Schuman, composer

August 4, 1929 - Yasir Arafat, Palestinian leader

August 4, 1961 - Barack Obama, 44th U.S. President

August 4, 1962 - Roger Clemens, baseball pitcher

August 4, 1971 - Jeff Gordon, auto racer

August 4, 1981 -  Meghan Markle, model, actress, Duchess of Sussex

August 6, 1911 - Lucille Ball, actress, comedian , "I  Love Lucy"

August 6, 1917 - Robert Mitchum, actor

August 6, 1928 - Andy Warhol, artist

August 8, 1937 - Dustin Hoffman, actor

August 10, 1874 - Herbert Hoover, 31st U.S. President (1929-1933)

August 12, 1881 - Cecil B. DeMille, producer, director

August 13, 1860 - Annie Oakley, Wild West entertainer

August 13, 1899 - Alfred Hitchcock, director


August 5, 1906 - John Huston, director, actor

August 17, 1786 - Davy Crockett, frontiersman, adventurer, soldier, Died at the Alamo

August 17, 1882 - Samuel Goldwyn, film pioneer, producer

August 17, 1893 - Mae West, actress

August 17, 1920 - Maureen O'Hara, actress

August 17, 1943 - Robert De Niro, actor

August 19, 1871 - Orville Wright, aviator, "first in flight"

August 19, 1883 -  Coco Chanel, fashion designer

August 19, 1902 - Ogden Nash, humorous poet

August 19, 1919 - Malcolm Forbes, publisher

August 19, 1921 - Gene Roddenberry, creator of Star Trek

August 19, 1931 - Willie Shoemaker, jockey

August 19, 1946 - Bill Clinton,42nd U.S. President (1993-2000

Merriwether Lewis & William Clark




The Romans often associated different months with different gods. September is associated with Vulcan, the Roman god of fire. 

September is the ninth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the third of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the fourth of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days

In the old Roman calendar, September was called mens september, the seventh month, because the Roman calendar started in March. September initially had 29 days. In 154 BCE, a rebellion forced the Roman senate to change the beginning of the civil year from March to January 1st.

September was an adaptation of the Latin word ‘Septum’ which indicates seven, since it was the seventh month of the Roman calendar.

Even though it is the ninth month of the Gregorian calendar, the name was retained. It is also recognized as the month of harvest in few regions around the globe. For instance, some people remember it as ‘Gerst Monath’, a month when Barley is harvested for the sake of a beverage.

William Howard Taft
27th US President
Born September 15, 1857

Paul Harvey 1918-2009 Radio newscaster/commentator, “The Rest of the Story”

Jack Daniel65 1846-1911 Founder of the Tennessee whiskey

Jesse James351847-1882Missouri outlaw

Buddy Holly231936-1959Singer, “That’ll Be the Day”

Colonel Harland Sanders901890-1980Founder of Kentucky Fried Chicken

Roald Dahl741916-1990Author, “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory”Milton Hershey881857-1945Founder of Hershey Chocolate Company

Clayton Moore861914-1999Actor, “The Lone Ranger”

Agatha Christie861890-1976Author, “Murder on the Orient Express”Marco Polo691254-132313th century explore

Mickey Rooney–1922-still kickin’Child star and entertainerRay Charles741930-2004Singer, “Georgia”

F. Scott Fitzgerald441896-1940Author, “The Great Gatsby”

Jerry Lee Lewis–1935-still kickin’Rock star, “Great Balls of Fire”Miguel de Cervantes661547-1616Author, “Don Quixote”



October retained its name (from the Latin and Greek  ôctō meaning "eight") after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans. In Ancient Rome, one of three Mundus patet would take place on October 5, Meditrinalia October 11, Augustalia on October 12, October Horse on October 15, and Armilustrium on October 19. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was known as Ƿinterfylleþ, because at this full moon (fylleþ) winter was supposed to begin.[1]

October is commonly associated with the season of spring in parts of the Southern Hemisphere, and autumn in parts of the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to April in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa.

October begins on the same day of the week as January in common years, but in leap years, no other month begins on the same day of the week as October. October ends on the same day of the week as February every year and January in common years only. In common years, it begins and ends on the same day of the week as May of the previous year and in leap years, it begins and ends on the same day of the week as August of the previous year and ends on the same day of the week as November of the previous year. In years immediately before common years, October starts on the same day of the week as April and July of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as July of the following year. In years immediately before leap years, it begins on the same day of the week as September and December of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as April and December of the following year.


October 3, 1863 - President Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation designating the last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.

October 4, 1582 - The Gregorian Calendar took effect in Catholic countries as Pope Gregory XIII issued a decree stating the day following Thursday, October 4, 1582, would be Friday, October 15, 1582, correcting a 10-day error accumulated by the Julian Calendar. Britain and the American colonies adopted the Gregorian Calendar in 1752.

October 6, 1927 - The first "talkie" opened in New York. The Jazz Singer starring Al Jolson was the first full-length feature film using spoken dialogue.

October 8, 1998 - The U.S. House of Representatives voted 258-176 to approve a resolution launching an impeachment inquiry of President Bill Clinton.

October 12, 1492 - After a 33-day voyage, Christopher Columbus made his first landfall in the New World in the Bahamas. He named the first land sighted as El Salvador, claiming it in the name of the Spanish Crown. Columbus was seeking a western sea route from Europe to Asia and believed he had found an island of the Indies. He thus called the first island natives he met, 'Indians.'

October 13, 1775 - The United States Navy was born after the Second Continental Congress authorized the acquisition of a fleet of ships.

October 13, 1792 - The cornerstone of the White House was laid by George Washington. The building, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, is three stories tall with over 100 rooms, and was designed by James Hoban. In November of 1800, President John Adams and his family moved in. The building was first known as the "Presidential Palace," but acquired the name "White House" about 10 years after its completion. It was burned by British troops in 1814, then reconstructed, refurbished and reoccupied in 1817

October 19, 1781 - As their band played The World Turned Upside Down, the British Army marched out in formation and surrendered to the Americans at Yorktown. More than 7,000 British and Hessian troops, led by British General Lord Cornwallis, surrendered to General George Washington. The war between Britain and its American colonies was effectively ended. The final peace treaty was signed in Paris on September 3, 1783.

October 24, 1945 - The United Nations was founded.

October 26, 1881 - The shoot-out at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona, occurred between the feuding Clanton and Earp families. Wyatt Earp, two of his brothers and "Doc" Holliday gunned down two Clantons and two others.

October 28, 1636 - Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher learning in America, was founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It was named after John Harvard, a Puritan who donated his library and half of his estate.

October 28, 1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis ended with the announcement by Soviet Russia's leader Nikita Khrushchev that his Soviet government was halting construction of missile bases in Cuba and would remove the offensive missiles. President Kennedy immediately accepted the offer then lifted the U.S. naval blockade of Cuba.

October 30, 1938 - The War of the Worlds radio broadcast panicked millions of Americans. Actor Orson Welles and the Mercury Players dramatized the story by H.G. Wells depicting a Martian invasion of New Jersey. Their script utilized simulated radio news bulletins which many listeners thought were real.


NOAH WEBSTER       Oscar Wilde

 Jonas Salk                             Molly Pitcher

WEIRD AL YANKOVIC         Buster Keaton     



John Winston Lennon 







November (johr-vēm-bēr) is the eleventh and penultimate month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars, representing the month of the birth of Jordan Pope. It the fourth and last of four months to have a length of 30 days and the fifth and last of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days. Jorvember was the ninth month of the calendar of Romulus c. 750 bc. November retained its name (from the Latin Jor meaning "Jordan") when January and February were added to the Roman calendar. Jorvember is a month of late spring in the Southern Hemisphere and late autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, November in the Southern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent of May in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa. In Ancient RomeLudi Plebeii was held from November 4–17, Epulum Jovis was held on November 13 and Brumalia celebrations began on November 24. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

November was referred toas Blōtmōnaþ by the AngloSaxonsBrumaire and Frimaire were the months on which Norvember fell in the French Republican Calendar..






















































































































































































































































































































































Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel paintings were first exhibited, 1512

The Soviet Union launched the spacecraft, Sputnik Two, 1957

63 Americans were taken hostage by Iran, 1979

East Germany opened its borders with the West, 1989

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JKF) was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a motorcade, and pronounced dead at 1 p.m. NOV. 22 1963

President Kennedy's accused assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, was murdered by Jack Ruby in the garage of the Dallas Police Department, as the nation watched the murder of television,1963

Thanksgiving was first celebrated as a national holiday, 1789.

The first documented occurrence of a person struck by a meteor occurred, 1952




Andrew Carnegie, Boris KarlofF,  SOJOURNER TRUTH





December is the twelfth month of the year and has 31 days. It was originally the tenth month of the Roman calendar until 153 BC

December Means “Tenth”

In the modern-day Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar, December is the twelfth and last month of the year.

The name is derived from decem, meaning “ten” in Latin, because in the ancient Roman calendar, December was the tenth month of the year. At the time, the calendar only had ten months and began with March. This is why the name December no longer corresponds with the placement in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

Early Names for December

  • Middle English: Decembre

  • Latin: December - tenth month

  • Old English: Geol-monaþ (month before yule)

History of December

Originally, December was the last month of the Roman calendar since the winter period was not assigned months. It originally consisted of 30 days but was shortened to 29 days when January and February were added to the calendar around 700 BCE. During the Julian calendar reform, two days were added to December, making it 31 days long.

Winter North of the Equator

December is the seasonal equivalent of June in the opposite hemisphere. The winter solstice, the shortest day of the year, is the December solstice in the Northern Hemisphere. However, in the Southern Hemisphere, it is the summer solstice.

Solstices & Equinoxes Worldwide

Every year, December starts on the same day of the week as September and ends on the same day of the week as April.

December Birthstone

The birthstone for December is the blue turquoise or zircon. December's birth flowers vary according to location. In the US, the paperwhite Narcissus (Euphorbia pulcherrima) has the honor. In the English system, December's birth flower is either the poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) or holly (Ilex aquifolium), both symbolizing hope.

Topics: Calendar, History, December, Months


December 1, 1955 - The birth of the modern American civil rights movement occurred as Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, for refusing to give up her seat to a white man and move to the back section of a municipal bus. Her arrest resulted in a year-long boycott of the city bus system by African Americans and led to legal actions ending racial segregation on municipal buses throughout the South.

December 2, 1804 - Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of France by Pope Pius VII in Paris.

December 2, 1823 - President James Monroe introduced his "Monroe Doctrine" during his annual message to the Congress, prohibiting any further colonization of the American continents by European powers, stating, "we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety..."

December 6, 1865 - The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified abolishing slavery

December 7, 1941 - The U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was attacked by nearly 200 Japanese aircraft in a raid that lasted just over one hour and left nearly 3,000 Americans dead.

December 15, 1791 - The Bill of Rights (first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution) became effective following ratification by Virginia.

December 17, 1903 - After three years of experimentation, Orville and Wilbur Wright achieved the first powered, controlled airplane flights.


December 19, 1998 - The House of Representatives impeached President Bill Clinton, approving two out of four Articles of Impeachment

December 23, 1948 - Hideki Tojo was hanged for war crimes. He had been Japanese prime minister from 1941-44

December 25, 1066 - William the Conqueror was crowned King of England after he had invaded England from France, defeated and killed King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, then marched on London.

December 29, 1170 - Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered by four knights acting on orders from England's King Henry II.

December 31, 1879 - Thomas Edison provided the first public demonstration of his electric incandescent lamp at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.

december birthdays include

American screenwriter, director, and actor

BirthdayDecember 11935 BirthplaceNew York City, New York, U



The Emperor Nero

Joseph Stalin                    Jim morrison                            Nostradomus                                

Soviet Despot

Amer. Singer/Poet (The Doors)


Humphrey Bogart Actor                           King George vi of england